While the above example includes only a possible reference to kingship, other examples bear explicit mention of the king, such as ECM, a blue glazed steatite scarab inscribed with the nomen of Amenhotep III, Amenhotep Heqawaset 'Amenhotep, ruler of Thebes'. Alternatively, or additionally, they may have summoned protection for the owner from the gods depicted within the name of the king, in this case, Amun.
Just as the image of the uraeus could simultaneously invoke a deity whilst also protecting against venomous snakes, depictions of other animals, such as the hippopotamus or the crocodile, could also serve a dual purpose, both summoning the guardianship of the deities with which the animals were associated and also performing an apotropaic function, warding off dangerous creatures. Many of the animals which appear were also associated with fecundity and, like the scarab, regeneration. Indeed, it was possible, as is the case with scaraboids, to entirely substitute such animals in place of the scarab form and, rather than simply decorate the base of a scarab with images of fauna, to replace the back of the scarab beetle with a three-dimensional carving of some other animal.
Examples include ECM and ECM, made of blue faience and blue glazed steatite respectively, both of which take the form of a frog. As a symbol of resurrection and rebirth, the scarab became associated with the transition of the deceased from life to an existence as an akh spirit in the afterlife. Consequently, scarabs were also viewed as appropriate amulets with which to adorn the dead and numerous scarab amulets have been excavated in tombs.
Many of these are indistinguishable from the small amulets worn by the living; indeed, the majority of the examples discussed above could have been used by either the living or the dead. It is also likely that many individuals were buried with scarabs which they had worn during their lives: the scarab served equally well as protection for the living and the dead, and also ensured that the deceased would be reborn in the netherworld. However, several types of scarab developed for use exclusively within a funerary context: heart scarabs — large scarabs which were often inscribed and which were placed on the breast of the deceased discussed below ; funerary scarabs — large, uninscribed scarabs with separate outstretched wings which were sewn into mummy wrappings from the Twenty-fifth Dynasty; 12 and small, uninscribed scarabs with legs carved in relief on the underside which are found sewn into mummy wrappings of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty onwards; ECM is an example of this latter type.
Heart scarabs were placed on the chest of the mummified body, either under or on the mummy wrappings. The earliest known examples date to the Thirteenth Dynasty and they remained in use until the Roman Period. Many heart scarabs were inscribed with all or, more commonly, part of Chapter 30B of the Book of the Dead , a spell commanding the heart not to act against the deceased during the weighing of the heart — the judgement of the deceased in the afterlife, as depicted in Chapter of the Book of the Dead and its accompanying vignettes.
During this interrogation, the heart of the deceased was weighed against maat ; if the scales balanced, the individual was declared 'justified' or 'true of voice' and permitted into the netherworld; if, however, they were found wanting before the gods of the tribunal, their heart would be devoured by Ammut, preventing entry into the afterlife and causing them to experience the second death. My heart of my mother, my heart of my mother, my heart of my form s! Do not be hostile before the Keeper of the Balance!
The spell takes the form of a plea, imploring the heart, believed to hold a record of a person's life, not to reveal anything during the judgement which could jeopardise the deceased's hopes of entering the afterlife as an akh spirit. This particular heart scarab bears a relatively short extract from Chapter 30B; others contain more lengthy lists of exhortations, also instructing the heart not to 'oppose' the deceased 'before the tribunal' or 'tell lies about' him 'in the presence of the god', 17 although presumably a lie would be preferred in favour of revealing crimes or transgressions!
While Chapter 30B is the text which appears most commonly on heart scarabs, Chapter 30A also intended as a means of preventing the heart from speaking against the deceased , or, less frequently, Chapters 26, 27 and 29B spells to ensure the heart remained with its owner after death and that the deceased was able to enter the netherworld without restraint were also used.
The employment of such artefacts as heart scarabs can usually be inferred from their size, material and often the absence of any piercing; for instance, ECM figure 5 can be identified as a heart scarab as it is unpierced, too large to be worn as an amulet, 19 and made of a greenish-brown stone with gold gilding, resembling the materials stipulated for the manufacture of heart scarabs in the rubric to Chapter 30B. Furthermore, the form of the scarab itself, representing new life and renewal, as well as being the hieroglyph for 'existing' or 'coming into being', helped to magically ensure the deceased would be successfully reborn in the afterlife.
Scarabs bear a range of messages which can be broadly divided into two types: those that were intended to convey piety and appeals to divine beings, and those which were intended to serve as a directive to the heart. Of the former, some are simply a general request or invocation for preservation and protection, addressed to any god or magical entity that might be able and willing to assist; others communicate the owner's devotion to one or more specific gods or kings whilst soliciting their favour and guardianship.
Scarabs utilised in burial contexts, in addition to retaining their protective function, also served to aid the deceased in undergoing his or her transformation into an akh spirit in the realm of the dead. In many cases, this role was implicit in the scarab form, with its inherent associations of new life, resurrection and existence.
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Heart scarabs, however, developed this aspect further: they also functioned as a missive to the heart, either literally if inscribed with Chapter 30B of the Book of the Dead or implicitly if left uninscribed , imploring and impelling the heart not to betray the deceased in their judgement in the afterlife, so that they might continue to exist after death. As with most aspects of Egyptian religion, an ongoing development of the scarabs can be seen over time: the earliest examples are crude amulets dating to the Sixth Dynasty; towards the end of the First Intermediate Period, the scarab form became more naturalistic and the range of motifs used on the base expanded, as it continued to do through subsequent periods; during the Middle Kingdom, heart scarabs first came into use, and then later, in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and the Saite Period, other types of funerary scarab developed.
Their primary purpose, however, remained essentially unchanged and the employment of scarabs as one of the many and diverse means of inducing the gods to intervene on behalf of their devotees, alive or dead, continued until the Roman Period. For example, ECM appears to be made of beeswax with traces of gold gilding also present; cf. See Andrews for further discussion of the behaviour of scarabs and its relationship with Egyptian mythology and funerary beliefs.
by Rupert Brooke
ECM measures 15 x 12 x 7mm; it is pierced longitudinally and, being made of carnelian, probably dates to the New Kingdom or perhaps later cf. Hornung and Staehelin 22, which states that most examples of this material date to the Eighteenth Dynasty, and Andrews ECM measures 13 x 10 x 6 mm; it is pierced longitudinally and is of unknown date. ECM measures 17 x 14 x 8 mm; it has a transverse piercing and has detail of the legs and belly of the scarab carved on the underside; such scarabs were sewn into the mummy wrappings of the dead during the Twenty-sixth Dynasty and later Andrews The scarab is pierced longitudinally and measures approximately 24 x 18 x 9 mm.
Comparable examples, probably also dating to the Ramessid Period, include Hornung and Staehelin no. B 25 and Teeter and Wilfong 68 no. See Hornung and Staehelin for a discussion of uraei on scarabs. ECM measures 18 x 12 x 10 mm and has a longitudinal piercing. ECM also bears a cartouche above a figure of Heh holding palm ribs in each hand; the cartouche is inscribed with the throne name of Tuthmosis III, Menkheperre , probably a cryptographic writing of Amun cf.
Hornung and Staehelin with Abb. In UT's first ninety-three years of existence, William Reese were also required to attend chapel each morning and evening and Sunday services at..
Scarabs: Appeals for Protection and Resurrection
Times when you seemed to fly on eagles' wings along a true course? I love that tiny vignette in the first chapter of John—John's different. Or where can I flee from your presence? They appear as an everlasting presence. Her movements for the rest of the performance are steady, are beating and have a precision ascendant without any hints of choreographic or dance lyricism.
This is the storytelling of fracture and suddenness as she is joined on stage by … herself. Prepping for the end of the world is the name of the game and who else can we trust but ourselves? When the character is out of our eyeline, the attention is drawn to the starkness of the shadow that she makes. There is an earnest homily inserted into the work which may need some tightening as the production moves forward but textually Bring Your Devices in Case You Forget struck me as an intelligent and coherent expression of anxiety about a worryingly common ability to justify self-interest and separate it away from what is inherently right.
This production uses audio as effectively to get its point across as it does the splendidly created visuals. There are cars and traffic and rainsoaked streets before the apocalypse must be prepared for. The synergy between human and projection is stunning and, as a technician I can tell you, the artistry behind the vision is brilliant. Hopefully you will have the chance to see this project at some stage … look for the fact that one of her is slightly taller! It exists in several different formats unified by a personalised view of the raping of Mother Earth for resources for humanity.
The beginning sequence, which is the most engaging and coherent, uses cameras and screens to hone in on the details of a miniature mining site which becomes the pornographic playground for a life-like dick seeking release in the hydraulics of drilling. The production did smack headlong into issues with the performance space as so few people in the audience could see the screens … I got the idea in the main but the detail was somewhat missing.
I really got it when I got it, though, and was very engaged by the acting which is very, very focussed.
The minutiae of that sequence does draw one into the world created for this overarching yet accessible character and the intentions and small motivations make for a slightly mysterious watch… what will happen next? Surely not! The vocalisations are few but very effective and there are quite a few character based laughs and some head-shaking disbelief at the depths of his fetishism.
The front row laughing at something unseen by the back rows leaves one to ponder about existence and trees falling in the forest and the ecological imperative of the show is taken up by Mother Nature in the next sequence as she addresses the audience directly. However, it was the metaphor of the first sequence that stayed with me as I left the theatre. When we ran a competition for a pass to see JobReady from Big Muscles Sad Heart, there were a great many entries which mentioned the agony of being out of work and looking for a job.
The production neatly taps into that experience and the laughs range from guffaws of recognition to whimpers at a familiar absurdities. The show has been crafted to delight those of us who negotiate the system. That means pretty much all of us; job seeking is bad but getting a pension is an equally bureaucratic nightmare.
Perhaps it would benefit from some tightening and character re-thinking but anyone on a benefit will laugh out loud in response to this comic, sad and irrationally logical production. They will put Matte through a series of pointless, occasionally dodgy, activities which have no chance of helping him find a suitable job and with no relevance to his Comm degree or artistic aspirations.
And with zero support to his self-belief or inner worthiness. Beginning with the paths we tread. The performers will often break into mindless walking in squares and rectangles of straight lines and the metaphor is very well placed and deepened by the confines of the narrowly cubicled office. The physical aspects of the work are very engaging. The madcap menagerie, you have to see the show to fully understand, is very cleverly done with a complex characterisation beneath the movement and interactions.
Some of the characters may be overly grotesque but Matte, our guide to the farcicalities of job seeker institutions, is a calm and rule-abiding character who does actually become more employable as we get to know him.
Guide The Wings of the Morning: Vignettes of the Presence of God
He is open to new experiences and as the tyranny builds, he keeps his cool. Though I would give the job to Danielle whose recalcitrance is enormous fun.
follow url Of the other characters who appear, Clive, a fast interview is a good interview, and poor perky, unstable Cindy were my favourites. The movement sequences which are gracefully inserted into the story form a major part of the success of the show. Travel and development are especially well expressed and the purposed randomness is a subtle and visually interesting element.
Related The Wings of the Morning: Vignettes of the Presence of God
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